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diff(1)                          User Commands                         diff(1)

       diff - compare two files

       diff [-bitw] [-c | -e | -f | -h | -n | -u] file1 file2

       diff [-bitw] [-C number | -U number] file1 file2

       diff [-bitw] [-D string] file1 file2

       diff [-bitw] [-c | -e | -f | -h | -n | -u] [-l] [-r] [-s]
            [-S name] directory1 directory2

       The diff utility compares the contents of file1 and file2 and writes to
       standard output a list of  changes  necessary  to  convert  file1  into
       file2.  This list should be minimal. Except in rare circumstances, diff
       finds a smallest sufficient set of file differences. No output is  pro‐
       duced if the files are identical.

       The normal output contains lines of these forms:

         n1 a n3,n4
         n1,n2 d n3
         n1,n2 c n3,n4

       where  n1 and n2 represent lines file1 and n3 and n4 represent lines in
       file2 These lines resemble ed(1) commands to convert file1 to file2. By
       exchanging  a  for  d  and  reading backward, file2 can be converted to
       file1. As in ed, identical pairs, where n1=n2 or n3=n4, are abbreviated
       as a single number.

       Following  each  of these lines come all the lines that are affected in
       the first file flagged by '<', then all the lines that are affected  in
       the second file flagged by '>'.

       The following options are supported:


           Ignores  trailing blanks (spaces and tabs) and treats other strings
           of blanks as equivalent.


           Ignores the case of letters. For example,  'A'  compares  equal  to


           Expands  TAB  characters  in output lines. Normal or -c output adds
           character(s) to the front of each line that  can  adversely  affect
           the  indentation  of  the original source lines and make the output
           lines difficult to interpret. This option  preserves  the  original
           source's indentation.


           Ignores  all blanks (SPACE and TAB characters) and treats all other
           strings of blanks as equivalent. For example, 'if ( a == b )'  com‐
           pares equal to 'if(a==b)'.

       The following options are mutually exclusive:


           Produces a listing of differences with three lines of context. With
           this option, output format is modified slightly.  That  is,  output
           begins with identification of the files involved and their creation
           dates, then each change is separated by a line with  a  dozen  *'s.
           The  lines  removed from file1 are marked with '−'. The lines added
           to file2 are marked '+'. Lines that are changed from  one  file  to
           the other are marked in both files with '!'.

       -C number

           Produces  a listing of differences identical to that produced by -c
           with number lines of context.

       -D string

           Creates a merged version of file1 and  file2  with  C  preprocessor
           controls  included  so  that  a  compilation  of the result without
           defining string is equivalent to compiling  file1,  while  defining
           string yields file2.


           Produces  a  script of only a, c, and d commands for the editor ed,
           which re-creates file2  from  file1.  In  connection  with  the  -e
           option, the following shell program can help maintain multiple ver‐
           sions of a file. Only an ancestral file ($1) and a  chain  of  ver‐
           sion-to-version  ed  scripts  ($2,$3,...)  made  by diff need be on
           hand. A "latest version" appears on the standard output.

             (shift; cat $*; echo ´1,$p') | ed − $1


           Produces a similar script, not useful  with  ed,  in  the  opposite


           Does a fast, uninspired job.

           This  option  only works when changed stretches are short and well-
           separated. It does work on files of unlimited length.

           Only -b is available with -h.

           diff does not descend into directories with this option.


           Produces a script similar to -e, but in the opposite order and with
           a count of changed lines on each insert or delete command.


           Produces  a listing of differences with three lines of context. The
           output is similar to that of the -c option, except that the context
           is  "unified".  Removed  and changed lines in file1 are marked by a
           '-' while lines added or changed in file2 are marked by a '+'. Both
           versions  of  changed  lines  appear  in  the  output, while added,
           removed, and context lines appear only once. The identification  of
           file1  and  file2  is different, with "−−−" and "+++" being printed
           where "***" and "−−−" would appear with the -c option. Each  change
           is separated by a line of the form

             @@ -n1,n2 +n3,n4 @@

       -U number

           Produces  a listing of differences identical to that produced by -u
           with number lines of context.

       The following options are used for comparing directories:


           Produces output in long format. Before the diff, each text file  is
           piped  through  pr(1)  to paginate it. Other differences are remem‐
           bered and summarized after all text file differences are reported.


           Applies diff recursively to common subdirectories encountered.


           Reports files that are identical. These identical files  would  not
           otherwise be mentioned.

       -S name

           Starts  a  directory  diff  in  the middle, beginning with the file

       The following operands are supported:

       file1         A path name of a file or directory  to  be  compared.  If
       file2         either file1 or file2 is −, the standard input is used in
                     its place.

       directory1    A path name of a directory to be compared.

       If only one of file1 and file2 is a directory, diff is applied  to  the
       non-directory  file and the file contained in the directory file with a
       filename that is the same as the last component  of  the  non-directory

       Example 1 Using the diff Command

       In  the  following  command, dir1 is a directory containing a directory
       named x, dir2 is a directory containing a directory named x, dir1/x and
       dir2/x  both  contain  files named date.out, and dir2/x contains a file
       named y:

         example% diff -r dir1 dir2
         Common subdirectories: dir1/x and dir2/x

         Only in dir2/x: y

         diff -r dir1/x/date.out dir2/x/date.out


         < Mon Jul  2 13:12:16 PDT 1990


         > Tue Jun 19 21:41:39 PDT 1990

       See environ(7) for descriptions of the following environment  variables
       that affect the execution of diff: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
       LC_TIME, and NLSPATH.

       TZ    Determines the locale for affecting the time zone used for calcu‐
             lating file timestamps written with the -C and -c options.

       The following exit values are returned:

       0      No differences were found.

       1      Differences were found.

       > 1    An error occurred.

       /tmp/d?????       Temporary file used for comparison

       /usr/lib/diffh    Executable file for the -h option

       See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       tab()  box; cw(2.75i) |cw(2.75i) lw(2.75i) |lw(2.75i) ATTRIBUTE TYPEAT‐
       TRIBUTE VALUE _ Availabilitysystem/core-os  _  CSIEnabled  _  Interface
       StabilityCommitted _ StandardSee standards(7).

       bdiff(1),  cmp(1),  comm(1),  diff(1g),  dircmp(1),  ed(1),  patch(1g),
       pr(1), sdiff(1), wdiff(1), attributes(7), environ(7), standards(7)

       Editing scripts produced under the -e or -f  options  are  naive  about
       creating lines consisting of a single period (.).

       Missing NEWLINE at end of file indicates that the last line of the file
       in question did not have a NEWLINE. If the lines  are  different,  they
       are  flagged and output, although the output seems to indicate they are
       the same.

Oracle Solaris 11.4               11 May 2021                          diff(1)
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